Difference Between Investment Casting and Machine Casting

Difference between Investment Casting and Machine Casting

Sand casting and machined investment castings are strategies for making metal parts by emptying liquid metal into three-layered molds. Even though techniques are millennia old, both have been refined over the years to limit how much metal is utilized and diminish any broad machining and completing required. In any case, critical contrasts exist between these two techniques for making metal parts. First, let’s know-how about we investigate the fundamentals behind each.


Casting, more known as cast molding, involves making a tool into a required shape and form. This requires pouring molten material into the mold and allowing it to solidify. Then comes the removal of the solidified material. Performing finishing procedures will follow to create the required product. Casting relies on the highs and lows of temperature as it needs to meet the material to pour into the cavity. Even from way back, industries are already using casting. They consider this a reliable manufacturing method for many industries and trades.


Modernization is never far from manufacturing. Machining is producing a product with the use of high-precision machines. It is faster, easier, accurate but more costly. There are already a lot of industries that rely on this manufacturing process. It is because it shows a more improved way to produce products. Programs and software usually control the machines. These prompt the tools and machines to perform the process.

Sand-Casting Basics

  • Liquid metal gets filled the sand-based molds during sand Casting.
  • In sand Casting, liquid metal, normally iron, steel, bronze, metal, aluminium, magnesium, and other non-ferrous combinations, is filled a two-piece form. The molds are made by compacting sand-most frequently blended in with mud as a holding specialist and saturated with water-around an example or model of the eventual outcome.
  • The shape is parted, separated, and the example eliminated. The two parts of the form are assembled back, and the void is loaded up with liquid metal. When the metal cools adequately, the shape is opened, the sand is eliminated, and the part is removed.
  • A few similar parts can be projected simultaneously, or the scope of various parts can share a shape. Molds are annihilated simultaneously, yet new ones are not difficult to make. The sand is regularly recovered and reused on numerous occasions.
  • Molds for machined investment castings normally have two unmistakable parts that are firmly secured when utilized.

Investment Casting Basics

  • Investment Casting, likewise called lost-wax casting, makes parts from liquid metal, generally tempered steel composites, metal, aluminum, and carbon steel. The initial phase is to assemble a wax form of the eventual outcome. This should be possible in one of three ways:
  1. Structure a gelatin form around a strong, 3D model of the result.
  2. Make a metal form of the result, and afterward, fill it with hot wax.
  3. Cut and machine reproduction of the item out of wax.
  • To project a few sections without a moment’s delay, a few wax examples can be gathered into a tree with wax sprinters and sprues cautiously interfacing them. The “tree” is then over and over dunked in a clay slurry that solidifies when it dries. After getting a few layers of art permitted to solidify, the tree and its examples are warmed to eliminate the wax.
  • The wax in the sprues and entryways additionally streams out of the tree and structures cylinders and pipelines for liquid metal to follow and fill the form.
  • Liquid metal is filled the now-vacant shape and left to harden. The fired shape, the machined investment castings, is annihilated to eliminate the part(s).


  1. Because of the intricacy and readiness required, investment Casting is frequently considerably more costly than sand Casting. In any case, sand Casting can’t generally make the little, many-sided parts conceivable with investment Casting. And keeping in mind that investment castings can make parts weighing just parts of an ounce, they are restricted as far as the size and weight of parts made with sand Casting.
  2. For correlation, investment castings can gauge a small part of an ounce, for example, for dental supports or over 1,000 lb. for complex airplane motor parts. More modest parts can be projected at hundreds for each tree, while heavier castings frequently are made utilizing a singular tree.
  3. The weight furthest reaches of machined investment castings relies upon the shape dealing with hardware at the Casting plant. Most U.S. offices cast parts up to 20 lb. Nonetheless, numerous homegrown offices are expanding their ability to pour bigger parts, and parts in the 20 to 120 territory are becoming normal.
  4. The contrast between Investment and sand Casting is the surface completion of the result. The form must be parted separated with sand Casting to deliver the result. Therefore, completed parts have a crease left by the splitting lines in the form. Also, the generally harsh sand leaves a similarly unpleasant surface on cast parts. In many occurrences, the splitting line and harshness are streamlined in optional machining processes, yet this requires extra time and work.
  5. Investment machined castings, then again, utilizes fired hard molds. Completed parts show smooth surfaces and low resiliences and can have flimsy dividers. In the wake of eliminating the doors and sprues, the cast parts regularly don’t need any optional handling.
  6. Investment Casting utilizes fluid slurry to frame the molds, so cast parts can have practically any shape, giving architects exceptional opportunity in their plans to add complicated elements and complex shapes. Sand-cast parts ordinarily must be tightened (with draft points) or formed, so they emerge from the compacted sand effectively and with little grating.
  7. It’s likewise a test to sand-cast leaves behind inward voids or pits. It requires centers appropriately molded and embedded in the shape to frame the part’s inside. A few centers might be required, and it very well may be tedious to shape and get them inside each form.


One benefit of such castings are that it is generally easy to change the form (by altering the example or centre boxes, regularly made of wood) to oblige configuration changes. With Investment Casting specialists might have to change or supplant the strong metal example or make new forms for turning out wax variants, which can be a more confounded interaction.


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